Who was General Tso? And other mysteries of American Chinese food | Jennifer 8. Lee

holybat:

elindigenazi:

otaachimow:


satsekhem:


otaachimow:


cosmicyoruba:


thegoddamazon:


sikssaapo-p:


elindigenazi:


Haha this made me laugh XD


I’m sure they would’ve, if they didn’t decided to abandon colonizing here, but for some reason they just decided to”fuck it” and leave…


Right? Pretty sure the Vikings were conquerors.


Maybe the Vikings were not conquerors as popularly imagined?


lol. okay guys this is what happened.
Erik the Red got kicked out of Iceland cos he killed someone. He wandered over to Greenland and then started trying to convince people to come live with him and they set up this sad little settlement there. Later another dude got blown off course trying to get there and happened to see North America, so he told Erik’s son Leif and Leif went to go check it out, but they didn’t see any people.
A few years later Leif’s brother Thorvald went exploring to try and get some furs and stuff. He found nine indigenous people sleeping under canoes and so what does he do? Yeah he kills eight of them and the ninth one runs off and comes back with a force of very angry Inuit who then killed him. Not exactly a promising start.
Anyway long story short, the Norse did a really crappy job interacting with the indigenous people so the Inuit just beat them back to Greenland and then they were too stubborn to eat fish like the native people instead of trying to raise sheep in Greenland so they either died or moved back to Iceland. 
Basically, it’s not that they were significantly nicer than Columbus, it’s mostly that they happened to piss off the Inuit before they managed to transmit diseases to them. 


This is why I have issues with “American ingenuity” bullshit about how the colonists took over America. No. It was not superior weapons or ingenuity. It was that we wiped out their populations with disease.


I am reblogging just because I never like to miss a chance to remind people that Natives consistently controlled and overwhelmed European forces before they were hit by epidemics. People of the northeast coast kept a very tight leash on Europeans until the early 1600s when disease hit (and Europeans commented that they couldn’t settle there because there were too many people), the Spanish got their butts kicked in Mexico until smallpox ravaged the Triple Alliance, and the majority of the middle part of the continent was entirely dependent on Native whims until the huge epidemic of 1780 (Native domination lasted longer in some areas of course, well into the 1800s, but before the epidemic Europeans didn’t even have a chance). 
I feel very confident saying that if diseases had not affected indigenous Americans, then Europe would not have conquered the continents. 


Reblogging because it is important for people understand the bold. it is true, the Europeans could not have won without the diseases brought to us. The argument saying that they won because they were “advanced” is invalid because not even their weaponry was enough to beat native people. It was their diseases, which they knew, that could potentially decimate our population. So no, Europeans were not more “advanced” they were just a filthy, which is the reason why they carried disease in the first place.

In Chile somehow the Mapuche didn’t get weakened by disease, and they never ever let the Spanish alone (In fact, they’re still fighting to this day). The Spanish were so done trying to fight them that at the end they set up the Bío-Bío river as a natural geographical limit, to the North was the Chilean Capitanía, to the South of the river were the Mapuche (Of course, the Spanish would cross the river to steal away people and get them into the Encomienda system because they were and are shit like that).

holybat:

elindigenazi:

otaachimow:

satsekhem:

otaachimow:

cosmicyoruba:

thegoddamazon:

sikssaapo-p:

elindigenazi:

Haha this made me laugh XD

I’m sure they would’ve, if they didn’t decided to abandon colonizing here, but for some reason they just decided to”fuck it” and leave…

Right? Pretty sure the Vikings were conquerors.

Maybe the Vikings were not conquerors as popularly imagined?

lol. okay guys this is what happened.

Erik the Red got kicked out of Iceland cos he killed someone. He wandered over to Greenland and then started trying to convince people to come live with him and they set up this sad little settlement there. Later another dude got blown off course trying to get there and happened to see North America, so he told Erik’s son Leif and Leif went to go check it out, but they didn’t see any people.

A few years later Leif’s brother Thorvald went exploring to try and get some furs and stuff. He found nine indigenous people sleeping under canoes and so what does he do? Yeah he kills eight of them and the ninth one runs off and comes back with a force of very angry Inuit who then killed him. Not exactly a promising start.

Anyway long story short, the Norse did a really crappy job interacting with the indigenous people so the Inuit just beat them back to Greenland and then they were too stubborn to eat fish like the native people instead of trying to raise sheep in Greenland so they either died or moved back to Iceland. 

Basically, it’s not that they were significantly nicer than Columbus, it’s mostly that they happened to piss off the Inuit before they managed to transmit diseases to them. 

This is why I have issues with “American ingenuity” bullshit about how the colonists took over America. No. It was not superior weapons or ingenuity. It was that we wiped out their populations with disease.

I am reblogging just because I never like to miss a chance to remind people that Natives consistently controlled and overwhelmed European forces before they were hit by epidemics. People of the northeast coast kept a very tight leash on Europeans until the early 1600s when disease hit (and Europeans commented that they couldn’t settle there because there were too many people), the Spanish got their butts kicked in Mexico until smallpox ravaged the Triple Alliance, and the majority of the middle part of the continent was entirely dependent on Native whims until the huge epidemic of 1780 (Native domination lasted longer in some areas of course, well into the 1800s, but before the epidemic Europeans didn’t even have a chance). 

I feel very confident saying that if diseases had not affected indigenous Americans, then Europe would not have conquered the continents. 

Reblogging because it is important for people understand the bold. it is true, the Europeans could not have won without the diseases brought to us. The argument saying that they won because they were “advanced” is invalid because not even their weaponry was enough to beat native people. It was their diseases, which they knew, that could potentially decimate our population. So no, Europeans were not more “advanced” they were just a filthy, which is the reason why they carried disease in the first place.

In Chile somehow the Mapuche didn’t get weakened by disease, and they never ever let the Spanish alone (In fact, they’re still fighting to this day). The Spanish were so done trying to fight them that at the end they set up the Bío-Bío river as a natural geographical limit, to the North was the Chilean Capitanía, to the South of the river were the Mapuche (Of course, the Spanish would cross the river to steal away people and get them into the Encomienda system because they were and are shit like that).

apihtawikosisan:

Warning…this is not even the worst of the pictures, consider whether you really need to click through or not.
thepitsshop:

Happy Columbus  Day! Today America honors  the slave trader, religious fanatic, gold seeker, and mass murderer Christopher Columbus. Happy  Holiday from www.thepitsshop.com

I hadn’t seen this particular horrific picture before, so I googled it as well as clicking through to the linked page.  It led me to many things, one of which is a partial list of “Indian Massacres“…the mass murder of indigenous peoples at the hands of colonizers.  Reading the Bartolome de las Casas quote is one thing, “They made a gallows just high enough for the feet to nearly touch the ground, and by thirteens, in honour and reverence of our Redeemer and the twelve Apostles, they put wood underneath and, with fire, they burned the Indians alive.”…but seeing it illustrated is something else.  Fuck.
Holy shit this series of pictures is disturbing beyond belief.  And the thing is…Bartolome’s account has been available for hundreds of years, yet for all that time, the story has been…we are the savages.  Somehow, someway, this is all ‘justifiable’.
Fuck.

apihtawikosisan:

Warning…this is not even the worst of the pictures, consider whether you really need to click through or not.

thepitsshop:

Happy Columbus  Day! Today America honors  the slave trader, religious fanatic, gold seeker, and mass murderer Christopher Columbus. Happy  Holiday from www.thepitsshop.com

I hadn’t seen this particular horrific picture before, so I googled it as well as clicking through to the linked page.  It led me to many things, one of which is a partial list of “Indian Massacres“…the mass murder of indigenous peoples at the hands of colonizers.  Reading the Bartolome de las Casas quote is one thing, “They made a gallows just high enough for the feet to nearly touch the ground, and by thirteens, in honour and reverence of our Redeemer and the twelve Apostles, they put wood underneath and, with fire, they burned the Indians alive.”…but seeing it illustrated is something else.  Fuck.

Holy shit this series of pictures is disturbing beyond belief.  And the thing is…Bartolome’s account has been available for hundreds of years, yet for all that time, the story has been…we are the savages.  Somehow, someway, this is all ‘justifiable’.

Fuck.

auntada:

As a young slave girl, Susie King Taylor secretly learned to read and write. Her skills proved invaluable to the Union Army as they began to form regiments of African American soldiers. Hired by the 1st South Carolina Colored Volunteers as a laundress in 1862, her primary roles were to nurse to wounded soldiers and to teach those who could not read or write. Taylor served for more than three years, working alongside her husband, Edward King, a sergeant in the regiment.
Photo: Susie King Taylor, 1902, courtesy East Carolina University

auntada:

As a young slave girl, Susie King Taylor secretly learned to read and write. Her skills proved invaluable to the Union Army as they began to form regiments of African American soldiers. Hired by the 1st South Carolina Colored Volunteers as a laundress in 1862, her primary roles were to nurse to wounded soldiers and to teach those who could not read or write. Taylor served for more than three years, working alongside her husband, Edward King, a sergeant in the regiment.

Photo: Susie King Taylor, 1902, courtesy East Carolina University

creolesoul:

A History of Black people in Europe

It is generally known that black people have been residing in European countries since the early colonial times. But even before the 15th century and during Roman times, a time when colour of skin still wasn’t a racist stigma but just another physical feature, black people lived in Europe. Remains of a man with black African features were found in England recently, dating his life back to the 13th century. Read this article for more info.


Besides that, facts have been found of black people living in different parts of Europe, although I don’t want to overstate their presence or influence. But it is generally known that during the Muslim era of the Iberian Peninsula (from the 8th century AD until the 15th century AD) people with dark skin were part of daily live. The Muslims who invaded Spain and Portugal around 700 AD were a mixture of black and dark people from North-Africa. They were often referred to as Maures, wrote about and painted, way before the dehumanization of black people started. I added above Jan Mostaert’s portrait of a nobleman, guest of the Queen of Austria. This painting dates back to the early 1500’s in what we now call Belgium, then part of the Duchy of Brabant. There is no doubt this man has African roots while being a respected member of European culture. We can only guess that this man is of Maure origin, i.e. a Muslim having converted to Christianity or even the second or third generation of converts. Below I will go deeper into the subject. I will give you some internet links, book references and a list of early Europeans of African descent, each time linked to their wiki page. If you know more about the subject I invite you to add information in a comment.Al AndalusMany blacks who were Muslims converted to Christianity after the emirate ofAl Andalus was abolished (end of 15th century). But the Reconquista took centuries (8th-15th century) and during those times black people gradually integrated the Christian and Northern European world. Among them were noble men and scholars. The negative image of blacks, as natural slaves, only gained prominence in the 18th century when the transatlantic slave trade became a central piece of European economical activity and later when European nation-states were being established. Slavery and racismOf course slavery existed before racism. In the 15th century blacks and whites were enslaved indiscriminately. Blacks in the America’s could become free men and own their own slaves and land (which was rather common in colonial Brazil for instance). It is only in later years that being black made you a slave forever and by birth, or at least a kind of human always inferior to white people. This racial perspective on identity and humanity only gained authority in later modern times. Read more on the subject here.Coat of ArmsBlack people were part of European imagination and reality from very early times. Read more here and here. We can say with certainty that there were black people in Europe before that white people reached the area south of the Sahara. North Africa, Iberia and the Middle East were the crossroad where black and white intermingled. In Europe references to blacks was a positive sign of strength and military power. Still today you can find many blacks in coat of arms for towns all over Europe, central, south and north, dating back to the middle ages. Some LiteratureAfter the 15th century, Portugal entered an intense relationship with African kingdoms in the Gulf of Guinea and the Congo coasts. Slave trade (although not based on race) and exchange between the kings led to the presence of Europeans on the West- and Central African shores, just as Africans in Portugal. Accounts from those days tell us that the sight of black people in the streets of Lisbon wasn’t a rarity during the Middle Ages, more on the contrary. I want to refer to following books for those who want to know more about this topic: Black Africans in Renaissance Europe, Thomas Foster Earle,K. J. P. Lowe(eds.)Africa’s discovery of Europe, David Northrup As a consequence of the slave trade free blacks also arrived in Europe between the 16th and 19th century. Blacks lived in London, Liverpool, Lisbon, Seville, … during the 17th and 18th century. Other historical books with scientific authority give you in depth knowledge of this:Hugh Thomas’s ‘The Slave Trade’Ivan Van Sertima’s ‘African Presence in Early Europe’All this publications teach us something about this hidden part of European history.Leo AfricanusLeo Africanus is often stated as one of these black and European noble men and scholars. But it is rather speculation to state if he was black or white. He was definitely a Maure but as racism, whiteness and blackness were unknown concepts as we know it today, we can’t know his ‘race’ for sure. This shouldn’t surprise anyone. Even very common socio-cultural concepts of today such as ‘French’, ‘German’ or ‘English’ didn’t exist in those days such that it would be silly to argue whether historical figures of those days were German or French. Same thing is valid for the white and black race as defined today. Famous Europeans with African ancestry (1500-1900)Below I will list some of the most famous figures of European modern history (after 1500) who happened to be black or have African ancestry, but were integral parts of European (high) society. Most of the time the African ancestry of these people is ignored by history books although acknowledged and accepted by most history scholars. I think it throws a new light on the concepts of race and the meaning of blackness in the 21st century. Alessandro ‘il Moro’ de Medici 1510-1537 Duke of FlorenceAbram Petrovich Ganibal 1696-1781 Major-general, military engineer, governor of Reval and nobleman of the Russian EmpireAnton Wilhelm Amo 1700-1775 German PhilosopherIgnatius Sancho 1729–1780 Author and abolitionist, UKOlaudah Equiano a.k.a. Gustavus Vassa 1745-1797Author and abolitionist, UKChevalier de Saint Georges 1745-1799A famous musican, composer and swardsman of his timesListen to his music here. Thomas Alexandre Dumas 1762-1806A general of the French RevolutionGeorge Polgreen Bridgetower 1780-1860Musician and composerListen and watch here Alexandre Pushkin 1799-1837Famous author, great-grandson of Abraham Petrovich GanibalAlexandre Dumas 1802-1870 French author of the world famous tale of ‘The Three Musketeers’, Thomas Alexandre Dumas’s sonJohn Archer 1863-1931 Presumably UK’s first black mayor, political activistSamuel Coleridge-Taylor 1875-1912Musician and composerListen to his music here
(via afroeurope.blogspot.nl)

creolesoul:

A History of Black people in Europe

It is generally known that black people have been residing in European countries since the early colonial times. But even before the 15th century and during Roman times, a time when colour of skin still wasn’t a racist stigma but just another physical feature, black people lived in Europe. Remains of a man with black African features were found in England recently, dating his life back to the 13th century. Read this article for more info.


Besides that, facts have been found of black people living in different parts of Europe, although I don’t want to overstate their presence or influence. But it is generally known that during the Muslim era of the Iberian Peninsula (from the 8th century AD until the 15th century AD) people with dark skin were part of daily live. The Muslims who invaded Spain and Portugal around 700 AD were a mixture of black and dark people from North-Africa. They were often referred to as Maures, wrote about and painted, way before the dehumanization of black people started. 

I added above Jan Mostaert’s portrait of a nobleman, guest of the Queen of Austria. This painting dates back to the early 1500’s in what we now call Belgium, then part of the Duchy of Brabant. There is no doubt this man has African roots while being a respected member of European culture. We can only guess that this man is of Maure origin, i.e. a Muslim having converted to Christianity or even the second or third generation of converts. 

Below I will go deeper into the subject. I will give you some internet links, book references and a list of early Europeans of African descent, each time linked to their wiki page. If you know more about the subject I invite you to add information in a comment.


Al Andalus


Many blacks who were Muslims converted to Christianity after the emirate ofAl Andalus was abolished (end of 15th century). But the Reconquista took centuries (8th-15th century) and during those times black people gradually integrated the Christian and Northern European world. Among them were noble men and scholars. The negative image of blacks, as natural slaves, only gained prominence in the 18th century when the transatlantic slave trade became a central piece of European economical activity and later when European nation-states were being established. 

Slavery and racism

Of course slavery existed before racism. In the 15th century blacks and whites were enslaved indiscriminately. Blacks in the America’s could become free men and own their own slaves and land (which was rather common in colonial Brazil for instance). It is only in later years that being black made you a slave forever and by birth, or at least a kind of human always inferior to white people. This racial perspective on identity and humanity only gained authority in later modern times. Read more on the subject here.

Coat of Arms

Black people were part of European imagination and reality from very early times. Read more here and here. We can say with certainty that there were black people in Europe before that white people reached the area south of the Sahara. North Africa, Iberia and the Middle East were the crossroad where black and white intermingled. In Europe references to blacks was a positive sign of strength and military power. Still today you can find many blacks in coat of arms for towns all over Europe, central, south and north, dating back to the middle ages. 



Some Literature

After the 15th century, Portugal entered an intense relationship with African kingdoms in the Gulf of Guinea and the Congo coasts. Slave trade (although not based on race) and exchange between the kings led to the presence of Europeans on the West- and Central African shores, just as Africans in Portugal. Accounts from those days tell us that the sight of black people in the streets of Lisbon wasn’t a rarity during the Middle Ages, more on the contrary. I want to refer to following books for those who want to know more about this topic: 
Black Africans in Renaissance Europe, Thomas Foster Earle,K. J. P. Lowe(eds.)
Africa’s discovery of Europe, David Northrup 

As a consequence of the slave trade free blacks also arrived in Europe between the 16th and 19th century. Blacks lived in London, Liverpool, Lisbon, Seville, … during the 17th and 18th century. Other historical books with scientific authority give you in depth knowledge of this:
Hugh Thomas’s ‘The Slave Trade’
Ivan Van Sertima’s ‘African Presence in Early Europe’
All this publications teach us something about this hidden part of European history.

Leo Africanus

Leo Africanus is often stated as one of these black and European noble men and scholars. But it is rather speculation to state if he was black or white. He was definitely a Maure but as racism, whiteness and blackness were unknown concepts as we know it today, we can’t know his ‘race’ for sure. This shouldn’t surprise anyone. Even very common socio-cultural concepts of today such as ‘French’, ‘German’ or ‘English’ didn’t exist in those days such that it would be silly to argue whether historical figures of those days were German or French. Same thing is valid for the white and black race as defined today. 

Famous Europeans with African ancestry (1500-1900)

Below I will list some of the most famous figures of European modern history (after 1500) who happened to be black or have African ancestry, but were integral parts of European (high) society. Most of the time the African ancestry of these people is ignored by history books although acknowledged and accepted by most history scholars. I think it throws a new light on the concepts of race and the meaning of blackness in the 21st century. 

Alessandro ‘il Moro’ de Medici 1510-1537 
Duke of Florence


Abram Petrovich Ganibal 1696-1781
 
Major-general, military engineer, governor of Reval and nobleman of the Russian Empire


Anton Wilhelm Amo 1700-1775 

German Philosopher


Ignatius Sancho 1729–1780
 
Author and abolitionist, UK

Olaudah Equiano a.k.a. Gustavus Vassa 1745-1797Author and abolitionist, UK

Chevalier de Saint Georges 1745-1799A famous musican, composer and swardsman of his times
Listen to his music here

Thomas Alexandre Dumas 1762-1806A general of the French Revolution

George Polgreen Bridgetower 1780-1860Musician and composer
Listen and watch here 


Alexandre Pushkin 1799-1837

Famous author, great-grandson of Abraham Petrovich Ganibal

Alexandre Dumas 1802-1870 
French author of the world famous tale of ‘The Three Musketeers’, Thomas Alexandre Dumas’s son

John Archer 1863-1931 
Presumably UK’s first black mayor, political activist

Samuel Coleridge-Taylor 1875-1912Musician and composer
Listen to his music here

(via afroeurope.blogspot.nl)

Today In Latin American History

fuckyeahlatinamericanhistory:

May 30

  • 1867: Peruvian president Ramón Castilla, who abolished Black slavery in his country, dies at age 69.
  • 1918: Poet Pita Amor is born in Mexico City.
  • 1919: Bolivian dictator René Barrientos is born in Cochabamba.
  • 1951: Paraguayan president Fernando Lugo is born in San Solano.
  • 1961: Dominican dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo is assassinated at age 69.

picturesofwar:

This day in history:

Dachau concentration camp is liberated from Nazi German control by American soldiers after 12 years of operation.

At least 30,000 prisoners died while being held inside and more than estimated 200,000 people were interned at one point or another within the camp.  Exact figures will never be known.

April 29, 1945 - 67 years ago today.


Ezili Dantò
The Revolution which created the nation of Haiti was inspired by the divine decree of the warrior love goddess known as Ezili Dantò who danced in the head of the great Haitian priestess, Cecile Fatiman, on that famous Haitian night in 1791, on a red hilltop, at a forest thicket in Haiti called Bwa Kayiman.
Led by the powerful warrior spirit of Ezili Dantò, Cecile Fatiman crowned the African warrior Boukman with her royal red Petwo scepter, ushering in the Haitian war which forever slashed the chains of European slavery in Haiti to create Africa’s sacred trust, Manman Ayiti - the first Black nation in the Western Hemisphere.
Ezili Dantò is the symbol of the irreducible essence of that ancient Black mother, mother of all the races, who holds Haiti’s umbilical chord back to Africa, back to Anba Dlo*. Calling on her essence, breath, vision and cosmic power brought forth Haiti’s release from 300-hundred years of brutal European enslavement.
Ezili Dantò is the spiritual mother of Haiti and the preeminent cosmic symbol of Black independence, unity, self-determination, justice, equality and freedom.

Ezili Dantò

The Revolution which created the nation of Haiti was inspired by the divine decree of the warrior love goddess known as Ezili Dantò who danced in the head of the great Haitian priestess, Cecile Fatiman, on that famous Haitian night in 1791, on a red hilltop, at a forest thicket in Haiti called Bwa Kayiman.

Led by the powerful warrior spirit of Ezili Dantò, Cecile Fatiman crowned the African warrior Boukman with her royal red Petwo scepter, ushering in the Haitian war which forever slashed the chains of European slavery in Haiti to create Africa’s sacred trust, Manman Ayiti - the first Black nation in the Western Hemisphere.

Ezili Dantò is the symbol of the irreducible essence of that ancient Black mother, mother of all the races, who holds Haiti’s umbilical chord back to Africa, back to Anba Dlo*. Calling on her essence, breath, vision and cosmic power brought forth Haiti’s release from 300-hundred years of brutal European enslavement.

Ezili Dantò is the spiritual mother of Haiti and the preeminent cosmic symbol of Black independence, unity, self-determination, justice, equality and freedom.

(Source: educationforliberation)

The Foundations of Whiteness

brandx:

The historical construction of Swedishness can be traced to the pre-eminence of the Swedes, along with the Norwegians and Danes, in the construction of the white race as the elite of homo sapiens. In a scientific discourse hegemonic for almost 200 years, the Swedes and other Scandinavians were considered the most physically and aesthetically perfect people on earth.

The nation’s scholars excelled in and contributed substantially to racial science: Carl Linnaeus created the first modern scientific system for race classification in the mid-1700s; Anders Retzius invented the skull or cephalic index – which became the principal method for racial science itself – in the 1850s; and the Swedish government founded the Swedish Institute for Racial Biology in 1922.

In the mid 1930s, Sweden also installed one of the most effective sterilization programs ever, a eugenicist project that was both racialized, heteronormative, gendered and classed, and that affected more than 60,000 Swedes before being dissolved in the mid-1970s.

Read More

"Things have gotten worse, not better."

cruelyouth:

Having only 5 hours of sleep last night, and needing to wake up early tomorrow, I’m not going to type a lot about this, but I did want to write something down so that I won’t forget it.

One of my co-workers is a black gentleman who grew up in Indiana during the 1930s and 40s.  A very scary time to be in this state.

When I worked tonight, he was telling me how he, along with many other black men, were taught how to act and behave, especially around white people.

Read More

newwavefeminism:

theeducatedfieldnegro:

Colonialism: Sins of Europe in the

Scramble for Africa

Now that Africa is the hot topic of the hour, let’s actually get people caught up on the historical context

Warning: video is graphic [as colonialism itself was graphic… and not even that long ago!]

Resistance & the Quilombos

brazilwonders:

Resistance to slavery took many forms. Documents of the period refer to the desperation of the slaves who starved themselves to death, killed their babies or fled. Sabotage and theft were frequent, as were work slowdowns, stoppages and revolts.

Other slaves sought solace in African religion and culture. The mix of Catholicism (made compulsory by slave masters) and African traditions spawned a syncretic religion on the sugar plantations, known today as Candomblé. The slaves masked illegal customs with a facade of Catholic saints and rituals. The martial art capoeira also grew out of the slave communities.

Many slaves escaped from their masters to form quilombos, communities of runaway slaves that quickly spread across the countryside. The most famous, the Republic of Palmares, which survived through much of the 17th century, was home to some 20, 000 people. Palmares was a network of quilombos covering a broad tract of lush tropical forest straddling the border of Alagoas and Pernambuco states. Under their leaders Ganga Zumba and his son-in-law Zumbi, its citizens became pioneers of guerrilla warfare, repeatedly fending off Portuguese attacks between 1654 and 1695. Eventually Palmares fell to a force of bandeirantes from São Paulo.

As abolitionist sentiment grew in the 19th century, many (unsuccessful) slave rebellions were staged, the quilombos received more support and ever-greater numbers of slaves fled the plantations. Only abolition itself, in 1888, stopped the growth of quilombos. Over 700 villages that started as quilombos remain today. Some were so isolated that they remained completely out of contact with white Brazilians until the last couple of decades.

Today In Latin American History

fuckyeahlatinamericanhistory:

March 15

  • 1711: Eusebio Kino, a Jesuit missionary active in present-day northern Mexico and the US southwest, where he founded a number of Catholic missions, dies at age 65 in what is now the Mexican state of Sonora. 
  • 1985: Brazil’s two-decades-long military dictatorship ends with the last day of Gen. João Figuereido’s administration.
  • 1990: Fernardo Collor de Mello is sworn in as the first democratically-elected president of Brazil in 26 years. He would resign from office two years later.
  • 2009: Mauricio Funes is elected president of El Salvador.
boha1000:

Natives recall residential schools abuse
HALIFAX - When he was six years old, Barney Williams told his father he had been raped at the Christie Roman Catholic school near Tofino, B.C. But his father — a staff member at the native residential school — didn’t believe him.Tears well up in Williams’s eyes as he recalls the moment more than 60 years later when his ailing father finally apologized for doubting what happened in the late 1940s.“As I walked into the room, he said, ‘I’m sorry for what I did to you,’ ” Williams said Wednesday, the first day of national hearings in Halifax for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.“That was my reconciliation. That was my moment of truth.”Now 72, Williams is a member of a committee helping other residential school survivors as they come forward to tell their stories to the three-member commission, which has already held two other national hearings — one in Winnipeg, the other in Inuvik, N.W.T. — since it started its work last year.Williams, an elder with the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations in Meares Island, B.C., said his brother also attended the residential school, but he died before he could reach his own sense of reconciliation.“He tried to protect me, but he was not much older than me,” Williams said. “He was just a boy himself.”In all, Williams spent eight years at the school before he went home.“There was that missing time, when you’re a little boy,” he said. “Canadians need to believe that this actually happened, and they really need to listen. … Even at my age, I get emotional talking about it.”The commission has a five-year mandate to document the history of Canada’s native residential schools, inspire reconciliation and produce a report by 2014. The federal government has set aside $60 million for the commission’s work.The first government-funded, church-run residential schools opened in the 1870s. The last one closed outside Regina in 1996.The 130 schools became infamous for being places where many students suffered emotional, physical and sexual abuse.The schools were also known for overcrowding, poor sanitation, unhealthy food and menial labour. Harsh punishment was meted out for those students who spoke their native language or took part in traditional rituals.The Atlantic region had one residential school, according to the commission. The Department of Indian Affairs built the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School north of Halifax in 1930.Students were taken from all three Maritime provinces and the Restigouche Indian Reserve in Quebec. It was operated by the Archdiocese of Halifax until 1956.In all, about 150,000 First Nations, Inuit and Metis children attended these schools. For those native families who resisted the system, children were forcibly taken away by the RCMP.The churches that operated the schools started apologizing in 1986.In 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper offered a public apology for what had happened, saying the goal of the schools was “to kill the Indian in the child.”The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, led by Manitoba Justice Murray Sinclair, was established as part of a landmark $4-billion agreement reached in 2007 with survivors who had filed a class-action lawsuit against the federal government and the churches.Hundreds of survivors and their relatives have gathered in Halifax to take part in the latest round of hearings, which wrap up on Saturday.The commission opened its hearings with a sacred fire ceremony Wednesday at the Nova Scotia legislature.The ceremony culminated with the arrival of Patrick Etherington, a residential school survivor who walked more than 2,200 kilometres from Cochrane, Ont., with his 28-year-old son, Patrick Jr., and his partner, Frances Whiskeychan.Etherington Sr., a member of the Moose Cree First Nation originally from Fort Albany, Ont., attended a residential school between the ages of six and 11.Like so many other native children, he suffered physical abuse at the school.He said he started the walk back in late July to raise awareness about the impact of the residential school experience on several generations of aboriginals.“It gave me the purpose of helping and creating more awareness toward everybody affected by the residential school issue,” he said in an interview.Etherington said he an his son forged a bond during the long walk that was absent before.“It was hard work,” he said.Williams said the commission is revealing the truth about what happened at the schools, but true reconciliation will take a long time.“Many of us are still at a point where we’re not ready to do that,” he said. “We’re still in a place of pain, resentment and anger.”Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version incorrectly stated that Williams had waited 50 years for his father’s apology.
http://www.metronews.ca/vancouver/canada/article/1007338—natives-recall-residential-schools-abuse—page0

boha1000:

Natives recall residential schools abuse

HALIFAX - When he was six years old, Barney Williams told his father he had been raped at the Christie Roman Catholic school near Tofino, B.C. But his father — a staff member at the native residential school — didn’t believe him.

Tears well up in Williams’s eyes as he recalls the moment more than 60 years later when his ailing father finally apologized for doubting what happened in the late 1940s.

“As I walked into the room, he said, ‘I’m sorry for what I did to you,’ ” Williams said Wednesday, the first day of national hearings in Halifax for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

“That was my reconciliation. That was my moment of truth.”

Now 72, Williams is a member of a committee helping other residential school survivors as they come forward to tell their stories to the three-member commission, which has already held two other national hearings — one in Winnipeg, the other in Inuvik, N.W.T. — since it started its work last year.

Williams, an elder with the Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations in Meares Island, B.C., said his brother also attended the residential school, but he died before he could reach his own sense of reconciliation.

“He tried to protect me, but he was not much older than me,” Williams said. “He was just a boy himself.”

In all, Williams spent eight years at the school before he went home.

“There was that missing time, when you’re a little boy,” he said. “Canadians need to believe that this actually happened, and they really need to listen. … Even at my age, I get emotional talking about it.”

The commission has a five-year mandate to document the history of Canada’s native residential schools, inspire reconciliation and produce a report by 2014. The federal government has set aside $60 million for the commission’s work.

The first government-funded, church-run residential schools opened in the 1870s. The last one closed outside Regina in 1996.

The 130 schools became infamous for being places where many students suffered emotional, physical and sexual abuse.

The schools were also known for overcrowding, poor sanitation, unhealthy food and menial labour. Harsh punishment was meted out for those students who spoke their native language or took part in traditional rituals.

The Atlantic region had one residential school, according to the commission. The Department of Indian Affairs built the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School north of Halifax in 1930.

Students were taken from all three Maritime provinces and the Restigouche Indian Reserve in Quebec. It was operated by the Archdiocese of Halifax until 1956.

In all, about 150,000 First Nations, Inuit and Metis children attended these schools. For those native families who resisted the system, children were forcibly taken away by the RCMP.

The churches that operated the schools started apologizing in 1986.

In 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper offered a public apology for what had happened, saying the goal of the schools was “to kill the Indian in the child.”

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, led by Manitoba Justice Murray Sinclair, was established as part of a landmark $4-billion agreement reached in 2007 with survivors who had filed a class-action lawsuit against the federal government and the churches.

Hundreds of survivors and their relatives have gathered in Halifax to take part in the latest round of hearings, which wrap up on Saturday.

The commission opened its hearings with a sacred fire ceremony Wednesday at the Nova Scotia legislature.

The ceremony culminated with the arrival of Patrick Etherington, a residential school survivor who walked more than 2,200 kilometres from Cochrane, Ont., with his 28-year-old son, Patrick Jr., and his partner, Frances Whiskeychan.

Etherington Sr., a member of the Moose Cree First Nation originally from Fort Albany, Ont., attended a residential school between the ages of six and 11.

Like so many other native children, he suffered physical abuse at the school.

He said he started the walk back in late July to raise awareness about the impact of the residential school experience on several generations of aboriginals.

“It gave me the purpose of helping and creating more awareness toward everybody affected by the residential school issue,” he said in an interview.

Etherington said he an his son forged a bond during the long walk that was absent before.

“It was hard work,” he said.

Williams said the commission is revealing the truth about what happened at the schools, but true reconciliation will take a long time.

“Many of us are still at a point where we’re not ready to do that,” he said. “We’re still in a place of pain, resentment and anger.”

Note to readers: This is a corrected story. A previous version incorrectly stated that Williams had waited 50 years for his father’s apology.

http://www.metronews.ca/vancouver/canada/article/1007338—natives-recall-residential-schools-abuse—page0

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